lenin e trockij

For forty-three years of my conscious life I have remained a revolutionist; for forty-two of them I have fought under the banner of Marxism. Retrouvez Rivoluzione e polemica sul partito. Trotsky was implicated in many practices which would become standard in the Stalin era, including summary executions. Lenin volle la pace immediata con gli Imperi Centrali e Trotzkij fece in modo di ottenerla (Pace di Brest-Litovsk), pur denunciando al mondo l'ignominia di quella che considerava una rapina di stampo capitalistico. Krestinsky was replaced as a member of the Politburo by Zinoviev, who had supported Lenin. In a few minutes, I was surrounded by a huge crowd of unbridled, utterly undisciplined, but not at all hostile men. In his attempt to save it by restoring the death-penalty, Kerensky only finished it. That creates for the secretary a position essentially independent of the local organization. [75], On 13 March 1918, Trotsky's resignation as Commissar for Foreign Affairs was officially accepted, and he was appointed People's Commissar of Army and Navy Affairs – in place of Podvoisky – and chairman of the Supreme Military Council. [159][160], On 20 August 1940, Trotsky was attacked in his study by Spanish-born NKVD agent Ramón Mercader, who used an ice axe as a weapon.[161][k]. He argued that the Soviet state had become a "degenerated workers' state" controlled by an undemocratic bureaucracy, which would eventually either be overthrown via a political revolution establishing a workers' democracy, or degenerate into a capitalist class. Zdroj: Wikimedia Commons, Krasnay Niva issue 8 1923 Apr 30, volné dílo . Two secret groups within the Communist Party, "Workers' Truth" and "Workers' Group", were uncovered and suppressed by the Soviet secret police. As he later wrote in his autobiography:[76]. [134] There was no evidence of any alliance with Nazi Germany or Japan, as the Soviet Union government claimed. The court found everybody guilty and sentenced the defendants to death, Trotsky, in absentia. Mladý Trockij si pomerne rýchlo s Leninom porozumel, ale nebál sa s ním ís泥 aj do ideologických sporov. Trotsky accepted the offer, but he was forbidden to live in Paris and soon found himself under the surveillance of the French police. He was replaced by, It is not clear why Kamenev, a mild-mannered man with few leadership ambitions and who was the brother-in-law of Trotsky, sided with Zinoviev and Stalin against Trotsky in 1922. Al centro Lenin e Trockij con i soldati del soviet di Pietrografo (1921) L'idea della "rivoluzione permanente" - di certo il contributo teorico più duraturo e noto della riflessione di Trockij - sembra avere il fiato corto nel momento in cui inizia il braccio di ferro con Stalin. The discussion split the party into many "platforms" (factions), including Lenin's, Trotsky's and Bukharin's; Bukharin eventually merged his with Trotsky's. Kamenev and Zinoviev were also alleged members of the bloc. Il 9 marzo 1918 Ed era solo tramite la vittoria della rivoluzione socialista internazionale (su questa c’era completa identità di vedute tra i due marxisti) che una Russia rivoluzionaria avrebbe potuto sopravvivere. The men were called out of their barracks. In late 1921, Lenin's health deteriorated and he was absent from Moscow for longer periods of time. A false rumor of his assassination circulated in Germany and the international press on New Year's Day 1920. Comrade Trotsky has come to speak to you." Poland defeated the Red Army, and the offensive was turned back during the Battle of Warsaw in August 1920, in part because of Stalin's failure to obey Trotsky's orders in the run-up to the decisive engagements. Trockij egyedül volt ezzel a nézetével, ami csak akkor vált hivatalossá, mikor 1917-ben a Bolsevik Párt t��le függetlenül fogadta el a permanens forradalom gyakorlatát Lenin híres Áprilisi Tézisében. Trotsky defended his position in a series of seven letters which were collected as The New Course in January 1924. Riscopriranno le idee e il programma di Vladimir Ilic Lenin e dell���altro grande dirigente e martire della classe operaia, Lev Trotskij. [124], Almost all Trotskyists who were still within the Soviet Union's borders were executed in the Great Purges of 1936–1938, although Rakovsky survived until the Medvedev Forest massacre of September 1941, where he was shot dead along with 156 other prisoners on Stalin's orders, less than three months into the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. L’abbattimento del capitalismo avrebbe rappresentato un esempio colossale da seguire per i lavoratori di tutto il mondo. Trotsky was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for his actions in Petrograd. Léon Trotski, de son vrai nom Lev Davidovitch Bronstein, né le 26 octobre 1879 à Ianovka et mort assassiné le 21 août 1940 à Mexico, est un révolutionnaire communiste et homme politique russo-soviétique. Lenin decided that since it was more important to defend Moscow, Petrograd would have to be abandoned. Historian Pierre Broué concluded that the bloc dissolved in early 1933, since some of its members like Zinoviev and Kamenev joined Stalin again, and because there were no letters in the Trotsky Harvard archive mentioning the bloc after 1932. Élete során bejárta a fél világot, és nem igazán érdekelte, hogy éppen Leninnel vagy Sztálinnal kell-e szembemennie azért, hogy elérhesse a céljait. Lev Davidovič Trockij řeční na střeše obrněného vlaku v roce 1920 během občanské války. Lénine / Léon Trotsky Date de l'édition originale : 1925 Le présent ouvrage s'inscrit dans une politique de conservation patrimoniale des ouvrages de la littérature Française mise en place avec la BNF.HACHETTE LIVRE et la BNF proposent ainsi un catalogue For other uses, see, Photograph of Trotsky that appeared on the cover of the magazine, Early political activities and life (1896–1917), Revolutionary activity and imprisonment (1896–1898), First marriage and Siberian exile (1899–1902), First emigration and second marriage (1902–1903), Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Brest-Litovsk (1917–1918), Trotsky's contribution to the Russian Revolution, Fate of Left Oppositionists after Trotsky's exile (1929–1941), Russian and Ukrainian: Лев (Лейба) Давидович Бронштейн, Лев Давидович Троцький, Yakov Sverdlov was the Central Committee's senior secretary responsible for personnel affairs from 1917 and until his death in March 1919. L’adesione di Trotskij al partito bolscevico non avviene sulla cresta dell’onda dell’avanzata della lotta di classe, ma bensì nel periodo più duro della repressione borghese che, dopo le giornate di luglio, costringe Lenin a fuggire in Finlandia, mentre lo stesso Trotskij ed altri dirigenti bolscevichi [89][90] Some Trotskyists, most notably Abbie Bakan, have argued that the claim that the Kronstadt rebels were "counterrevolutionary" has been supported by evidence of White Army and French government support for the Kronstadt sailors' March rebellion. Rudé gardy, ozbrojené dělnické milice, ze kterých byla posléze vytvořena Rudá armáda, pod Trockého velením obsadily mosty přes Něvu, Baltské nádraží, vládní budovy a všechny opěrné body města. (A. He was all things rolled into one. During this time, he helped to generalize the strategy and tactics of the Bolsheviks to newly formed Communist parties across Europe and further afield. It was not until early 1921, due to economic collapse and social uprisings, that Lenin and the rest of the Bolshevik leadership abandoned War Communism in favor of the New Economic Policy. [166], Trotsky considered himself to be a "Bolshevik-Leninist,"[167] arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. Although most closely associated with Leon Trotsky, the call for a “Permanent Revolution” is first found in the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in March 1850, in the aftermath of the 1848 Revolution, in their Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League: It is our interest and our task to make the revolution permanent until all the more or less propertied classes have been driven from their ruling positions, until the proletariat has conquered state power and until the association of the proletarians has progressed sufficiently far – not only in one country but in all the leading countries of the world – that competition between the proletarians of these countries ceases and at least the decisive forces of production are concentrated in the hands of the workers. Woods e T. Grant, op. Gli impedimenti erano di natura puramente soggettiva, la mancanza di preparazione, la mancanza di organizzazione e, soprattutto, la debolezza del partito rivoluzionario. The dissatisfied and those whose feelings had been hurt found their way to Stalin or Zinoviev, for these two also nourished hurts. The Last Period of Struggle Within the Party)", "Leon Trotsky: An Open Letter to the French Workers", "Open Letter to the C.E.C. Herrera, Hayden (1983). He despised 'bourgeois democracy'; he believed that spinelessness and soft-heartedness would destroy the revolution, and that the suppression of the propertied classes and political opponents would clear the historical arena for socialism. [143], Trotsky wrote prolifically while in exile, penning several key works, including his History of the Russian Revolution (1930) and The Revolution Betrayed (1936), a critique of the Soviet Union under Stalinism. It lost some less dedicated members to the harassment by the troika, but it also began formulating a program. --Paola Michelangeli 10:42, 15 nov Se è per questo, la Treccani usa il patronimico anche con Lenin e con Stalin, cosa che su WP è stata evitata, a mio parere giustamente. Since the troika controlled the Party apparatus through Stalin's Secretariat and Pravda through its editor Bukharin, it was able to direct the discussion and the process of delegate selection. Trockij e la pace necessaria (2007) Trotsky en Corrèze (2007) ... Vladimir Ilʹič Lenin (1870-1924) Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919) Jack London (1876-1916) Vladimir Vladimirovič Maâkovskij (1893-1930) Marcel Martinet (1887-1944) Karl Marx (1818-1883) André Morizet (1876-1942) J. E. Pouterman . But in the south, General Anton Denikin's White Russian forces advanced, and the situation deteriorated rapidly. Trotsky argued[83] that Petrograd needed to be defended, at least in part to prevent Estonia and Finland from intervening. There was little overt political disagreement within the Soviet leadership throughout most of 1924. The alliance became known as the United Opposition. Let the future generations cleanse it of all evil, oppression and violence, and enjoy it to the full.L. Zdroj: Wikimedia Commons, Grigorij Goldstein, volné dílo. [123] However, Rakovsky was cited in allegations involving the killing of Sergey Kirov, and was arrested and imprisoned in late 1937, during the Great Purge. Zdroj: Wikimedia Commons, Krasnay Niva issue 8 1923 Apr 30, volné dílo . He did not believe that the Red Army would find much support in Poland proper. When later living in Mexico, Trotsky was utterly scathing about the treatment he received during his 108 days at Hurum, and accused the Norwegian government of trying to prevent him from publicly voicing his strong opposition to the Trial of the Sixteen and other show trials, saying: When I look back today on this period of internment, I must say that never, anywhere, in the course of my entire life — and I have lived through many things — was I persecuted with as much miserable cynicism as I was by the Norwegian "Socialist" government. Nel corso dei 14 anni che intercorrono tra il II congresso e la rivoluzione d’Ottobre, Lenin e Trotskij condividono una posizione comune su due fra le questioni decisive per ogni marxista: l’atteggiamento verso la borghesia liberale e verso la guerra imperialista. If the White Terror can only retard the historical rise of the proletariat, the Red Terror hastens the destruction of the bourgeoisie.[78]. At the thirteenth Party Congress in May, Trotsky delivered a conciliatory speech:[107], None of us desires or is able to dispute the will of the Party. - Uomo politico e scrittore bolscevico, nato il 7 novembre 1879 a Janovka presso Elizavetgrad (governatorato di Cherson). Vatsetis took charge of the day-to-day operations of the army. Appointment of the secretaries of provincial committees is now the rule. [163], According to James P. Cannon, the secretary of the Socialist Workers Party (USA), Trotsky's last words were "I will not survive this attack. E poi, criticando Kamenev, che dichiarava come la rivoluzione democratico borghese non fosse completata, risponde: “No, questa formula è antiquata. After weighing his options, Trotsky applied to move to Norway. Ricordiamo che lo scontro del II congresso giunse come uno shock per tantissimi militanti all’interno della Russia e che l’effettiva costituzione di due partiti separati non avvenne che nel 1912. The term "Trotskyism" was first coined by the Russian liberal politician Pavel Milyukov, the first foreign minister in the Provisional Government who, in April 1917, was forced to demand that the British government release Trotsky. In early 1926, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters in the "New Opposition" gravitated closer to Trotsky's supporters, and the two groups soon formed an alliance, which also incorporated some smaller opposition groups within the Communist Party. The discussion lasted most of December and January until the XIIIth Party Conference of 16–18 January 1924. [140] On 19 December 1936, Trotsky and his wife were deported from Norway after being put on the Norwegian oil tanker Ruth, under guard by Jonas Lie. [128], On 20 February 1932, Trotsky and all of his family lost their Soviet citizenship and were forbidden to enter the Soviet Union. Still committed to War Communism, Lenin rejected his proposal. Lev Davidovič Trockij řeční na střeše obrněného vlaku v roce 1920 během občanské války. I due partiti riformisti, tra le condizioni per un accordo, propongono precisamente l’eliminazione dal governo di Lenin e Trotskij, condizione che i bolscevichi conciliazionisti sono disposti a discutere. Lev Davidovics Trockij 1879-ben született Ukrajnában, a Herszoni kormányzóság Jeliszavetgrádi járásának egy kis falujában, Janovkában (napjainkban: Bereszlavka). Tuttavia, Trotskij si sbagliava. Lev Davidovič Trockij řeční na střeše obrněného vlaku v roce 1920 během občanské války. L’indipendenza del movimento operaio nei confronti della borghesia “liberale” era dunque una questione di principio per i due marxisti. After quarreling with Diego Rivera, Trotsky moved to his final residence on Avenida Viena in April 1939. [citation needed], During this time Trotsky gave the eulogy at the funeral of his friend, the Soviet diplomat Adolph Joffe, in November 1927. The United Opposition was repeatedly threatened with sanctions by the Stalinist leadership of the Communist Party, and Trotsky had to agree to tactical retreats, mostly to preserve his alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev. [126] However, no foreign government was found willing to accept Trotsky within its borders. Clearly, the Party is always right... We can only be right with and by the Party, for history has provided no other way of being in the right. Trotsky wanted by no means that the alliance became a fusion, and he was afraid of the right gaining much power inside the bloc. The first draft of the resolution was rejected by Trotsky, which led to the formation of a special group consisting of Stalin, Trotsky and Kamenev, which was charged with drafting a mutually acceptable compromise. Il dissenso fondamentale con Lenin si incentra sulle possibilità di riconciliazione fra queste due correnti. Trotskij ribatteva che in tutto il corso della storia i contadini non avevano mai giocato un ruolo indipendente. Trotsky denied this statements made by Eastman in an article he wrote.[113]. [citation needed]. Lidovky citují dánská média, podle nichž „z Moskvy přibyvší cestující oznamují, že Trockij dal Lenina zatknouti a provolal se sám za diktátora. cit, pag 58). He put Trotsky in charge of the country's railroads (while retaining overall control of the Red Army), which he directed should be militarized in the spirit of War Communism. Ladislav Větvička se nestačí divit, co se nejen u nás v současné době řeší za pošetilosti, zatímco kráčíme k civilizační katastrof ě. Svět jakoby uplně zblbnul. Lenin Ecco perché, nel tardo pomeriggio di un giorno di agosto, Trockij ��� terminato di dare da mangiare ai conigli e alle galline ��� invita Jacson-Mercader nel suo studio. Il fallito colpo di Stato di Kornilov, sconfitto grazie alla corretta tattica di fronte unico utilizzata dai bolscevichi e non certo per la pavidità di Kerenskij, che intanto era stato nominato capo del governo provvisorio, ribalta completamente i rapporti di forza e conferisce una grande autorevolezza ai bolscevichi, che nel mese di settembre conquistano la maggioranza dei soviet, non solo nelle grandi città, ma anche al fronte. On his way, he learned about Lenin's death on 21 January 1924. Lenin sharply criticized Trotsky and accused him of "bureaucratically nagging the trade unions" and of staging "factional attacks." Nel 1912 Lenin fa uscire ���La Pravda���, ���vi erano i sindacati, i partiti politici e il parlamento, la Duma���. At a meeting of his faction at the Tenth Party Congress in March 1921, Lenin's faction won a decisive victory, and a number of Trotsky's supporters (including all three secretaries of the Central Committee) lost their leadership positions. Introduzione (Pascale) p. 42. ��� Coyoacán, ma Mexikóváros része, Mexikó, 1940. augusztus 21.) After the Conference, a number of Trotsky's supporters, especially in the Red Army's Political Directorate, were removed from leading positions or reassigned. Meno di due mesi dopo fu mandato a prendere contatto con il gruppo dell' Iskra di Parigi. Also among the Medvedev Forest victims was Trotsky's sister/Kamenev's first wife, Olga Kameneva.[11]. di Lejba Bron邸tein) Rivoluzionario e politico russo (Janovka, Cherson, 1879-Coyoacán, Città di Messico, 1940). It creates the new regime. Lev Trockij s Alexandrem Parvusem a Leo Deutschem během věznění v Petropavlovské pevnosti v Petrohradě v roce 1906. But when Trotsky offered his resignation on 5 July, the Politburo and the Orgburo of the Central Committee unanimously rejected it. The latter had the task of ensuring the loyalty of military experts (mostly former officers in the imperial army) and co-signing their orders. Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata, Kazakhstan on 31 January 1928. Dopo la telefonata e il secondo ictus Lenin capì che Stalin non era in grado di guidare il Paese e che a farlo doveva essere il fedele Trockij, ciò venne riportato nelle sue ultime lettere che Stalin intercettò e neutralizzò. [115] Sun Yat-sen established the Republic of China. Upon the ashes of the great war, the Bolsheviks created a new army. The struggle which is in the offing transcends by far the importance of individuals, factions and parties. I climbed on a table there in the yard, and spoke to them for about an hour and a half. He wanted no part of Lenin's intrigues, even when the target was Stalin, whom Trotsky had always detested and regarded as an inferior. If you do not consider me already hopelessly foolish, how can you think of that???? Whoever seeks physical comfort and spiritual calm let him step aside. Stalin funded the KMT during the expedition. [164][162] Mercader later testified at his trial: I laid my raincoat on the table in such a way as to be able to remove the ice axe which was in the pocket. On 5 August 1936, Knudsen's house was burgled by fascists from the Nasjonal Samling while Trotsky and his wife were out on a seashore trip with Knudsen and his wife. Under all the severe blows of fate, I shall be happy as in the best days of my youth; because, my friends, the highest human happiness is not the exploitation of the present but the preparation of the future. Lenin was shocked and responded:[97]. Throughout late 1918 and early 1919, there were a number of attacks on Trotsky's leadership of the Red Army, including veiled accusations in newspaper articles inspired by Stalin and a direct attack by the Military Opposition at the VIIIth Party Congress in March 1919. [126] At this time, he made requests to enter Belgium, France, Norway, Germany and the United Kingdom,[127] but they all refused it. Tutte le tendenze all’interno della socialdemocrazia russa concordavano che la prossima rivoluzione sarebbe stata una rivoluzione democratico-borghese, i pareri discordavano su quale sarebbe stata la classe che avrebbe guidato tale rivoluzione contro l’autocrazia zarista. Many of his supporters argued against his appearance. …, Rivoluzione n° 70 – 3 luglio 2020 Nazionalizzare per difendere …, Rivoluzione n°69 – 3 giugno 2020 Un’ondata di rabbia insurrezionale …, Rivoluzione n°68 – 24 aprile 2020 Il capitalismo è il …, Rivoluzione n°67 – 17 marzo 2020 “Non siamo carne da …, RIVOLUZIONE N°66 – 20 febbraio 2020 5 milioni di lavoratori …, Rivoluzione n°65 – 23 gennaio 2020 Medio oriente tra guerra …, Rivoluzione n°64 (13 dicembre 2019) La Francia in rivolta indica …, Crisi industriali – Nazionalizzare per difendere il lavoro! 117-130 *Lenin lo stregone / Vittorio Strada Fa parte di Prometeo : rivista trimestrale di scienze e storia , PP. When the committee learned the nature of the testimony Trotsky intended to present, it refused to hear him, and he was denied a visa to enter the United States. Trockij (Trotzki), Lev Davidovi�� (pseud. Lev Trotski. When the United Opposition tried to organize independent demonstrations commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Bolshevik seizure of power in November 1927, the demonstrators were dispersed by force and Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party on 12 November. They insisted that it was vital to capture Siberia before the onset of winter and that once Kolchak's forces were broken, many more divisions would be freed up for the Southern Front. Ed oggi tocca a noi, nel centenario del 1917, ristabilire la verità storica sul percorso di lotta e di dibattito teorico dei due più grandi rivoluzionari del ventesimo secolo: Vladimir Lenin e Lev Trotskij. Trotsky categorically refused the conditions, and Trotsky was then told that he and his wife would soon be moved to another residence. The fascist burglars targeted Trotsky's works and archives for vandalism. [citation needed] That put them at odds with Bukharin and Rykov, the "Right" group within the Party, who supported the troika at the time. Militant marxiste, du Parti ouvrier social-démocrate de Russie puis, à partir de l'été 1917, bolchevik, il est plusieurs fois déporté en Sibérie ou exilé de Russie, et est notamment président du … Lenin e Trotskij invece concordavano sul fatto che la classe capitalista russa non avrebbe giocato alcun ruolo rivoluzionario e che nel momento dello scontro rivoluzionario, si sarebbe schierata inevitabilmente dalla parte della controrivoluzione. Quando lo zar viene rovesciato (13 marzo), Lenin è in esilio in Svizzera; Trotskij, espulso dalla Francia su pressioni dell’ambasciata zarista, è a New York. Zinoviev demanded Trotsky's expulsion from the Communist Party, but Stalin refused to go along and played the role of a moderate. 26 October] 1879 ��� 21 August 1940), better known as Leon Trotsky (/ �� t r �� t s k i /), was a Russian Marxist revolutionary, political theorist and politician. [147], The Moscow trials are perpetuated under the banner of socialism. From 1921 onwards, the united front, a method of uniting revolutionaries and reformists in the common struggle while winning some of the workers to revolution, was the central tactic put forward by the Comintern after the defeat of the German revolution. He immediately went to Petrograd, whose leadership headed by Zinoviev he found demoralized, and organized its defense, sometimes personally stopping fleeing soldiers. The raid was largely thwarted by Knudsen's daughter, Hjørdis, although the burglars did take a few papers from the nearest table as they left. Neve egészen az 1980-as évekig tabunak számított a szocialista országokban. Иофе. I learned afterward, with some pride, that one of the best ways to educate them was to remind them: "What did you promise Comrade Trotsky?" Registrati sul nostro sito web e scarica il libro di Il «Corriere» tra Stalin e Trockij 1926-1929 e altri libri dell'autore Richiesta inoltrata al Negozio assolutamente gratis! [citation needed], At the 3–4 July Central Committee meeting, after a heated exchange, the majority supported Kamenev and Smilga against Vācietis and Trotsky. I decided not to miss the wonderful opportunity that presented itself. In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International, which was intended to be a revolutionary and internationalist alternative to the Stalinist Comintern. In October 1927, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Central Committee. Apja, David Leontyjevics Bronstein jómódú, zsidó származású, de vallását nem gyakorló gazdálkodó volt, bérlő. 12. Among his other supporters was Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist Party.[146]. Most members of the Revolutionary Military Council who were not involved in its day-to-day operations were relieved of their duties on 8 July, and new members, including Smilga, were added. In time of reaction it is more convenient to lean on the bureaucracy than on the truth. However, Trotsky's European supporters volunteered to serve as bodyguards and assured his safety. È in questo momento che Lenin spinge per organizzare concretamente l’insurrezione che avrebbe dovuto rovesciare il governo provvisorio e conferire tutto il potere nelle mani dei soviet. Zdroj: Wikimedia Commons, Grigorij Goldstein, volné dílo. Che Trockij prese la parola quel giorno ne abbiamo la certezza grazie a una foto, scattata probabilmente da Leonidov, che lo ritraeva Tisk článku. Trotsky and most of his followers, on the other hand, refused to surrender and stayed the course. Infatti, mentre nelle settimane successive al febbraio gli articoli scritti da Trotskij in America seguivano la stessa linea di pensiero delle Lettere da lontano di Lenin, la direzione bolscevica all’interno del paese, guidata da Kamenev e da Stalin, balbettava, incapace di adottare una linea indipendente. [77] Regarding the Red Terror Trotsky wrote: The bourgeoisie today is a falling class... We are forced to tear it off, to chop it away. I did not look to the side, I elbowed away those who interfered with military success, or in the haste of the work trod on the toes of the unheeding and was too busy even to apologize. Dunque non ci sono motivi che giustifichino l’esistenza separata delle due organizzazioni.” (E. H. Carr, La rivoluzione bolscevica, citato in A. Rank-and-file oppositionists were increasingly harassed, sometimes expelled from the Party and even arrested. Trotsky, who had earlier had conflicts with the leadership of the Eastern Front, including a temporary removal of Kamenev in May 1919, supported Vācietis. [144], While in Mexico, Trotsky also worked closely with James P. Cannon, Joseph Hansen, and Farrell Dobbs of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, and other supporters. La freschezza dei 30 anni e l���aura esotica che emanava È priva di senso. In realtà, Trotskij rompe con i menscevichi già nel 1904, l’anno successivo al famoso II congresso del Posdr, che sancisce la spaccatura fra le due correnti della socialdemocrazia russa.

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